Tropheus is a small genus of cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. It is popular with aquarium hobbyists due to the beautiful markings. The genus is widespread across all regions of Lake Tanganyika, from Burundi in the north to Zambia in the south. Males and females are relatively similar. Males are typically larger than females.

All species maternally mouthbrood their eggs and fry. Most species occur along the coastal fringes of the lake at depths less than 3 m. The only Tropheus species to dwell further out and deeper in the lake is Tropheus duboisi, which in general inhabits deeper regions of the lake down to around 15-20 m. All species are algal grazers.